George Washington überquert den Rhein

"Washington Crossing the Delaware" (1851) by Emanuel Leutze [Public domain or Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons
“Washington Crossing the Delaware” (1851) by Emanuel Leutze [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

Ronald D. Gerste erzählt in einem in einem interessanten Artikel in der ZEIT die Geschichte des vielleicht berühmtesten Gemäldes der USA. Wie kam es dazu, dass ausgerechnet ein deutscher Auswanderer im neunzehnten Jahrhundert George Washingtons Überquerung des Delaware darstellte und warum bewegt sich der erste amerikanische Präsident eigentlich über den Rhein?

 

Euro-Trash-Talk: Silvio Berlusconi, Contemporary Germany, And The Holocaust

Hitler
Hitler

Former Italian Prime Minister Silvio Berlusconi is a very colorful figure in European politics, to put it in the most friendly way possible. In fact, he is a convicted criminal, sentenced for tax fraud. But that is not my topic here.

Silvio’s assorted Nazi comparisons

Berlusconi has a record of inflammatory statements regarding contemporary Germany’s dealing with its Nazi past.

In 2003, Berlusconi addressed German social democratic MEP Martin Schulz, suggesting he might be a good fit for playing a concentration camp guard in a Holocaust movie.

Now, in the context of the 2014 elections for the European Parliament, Berlusconi claimed that “[for] the Germans, [. . .], concentration camps never existed.”

Mainstream contemporary Germany does not deny the Holocaust

This is of course factually wrong when talking about Germany in 2014—which Berlusconi did. And frankly, it is quite offensive to the majority of contemporary Germans who are not Holocaust deniers (including myself). If you should happen to be in Germany, just turn on a TV and you will notice that public television stations regularly broadcast documentaries about all kinds of aspects of Nazi Germany, including the Holocaust.

In case you did not know, Holocaust denial is also a punishable offence under German law.

Now there are actual valid debates about Germany’s dealings with its past and reasonable criticisms of phenomena like racism and antisemitism in contemporary Germany. There are, for instance, discussions about the ‘unburdening’ function the official national ‘culture of remembrance’ serves for the wider German society.

Berlusconi, apologist of Italian fascism

That being said, Silvio Berlusconi is neither a man interested in nor qualified to contribute to those debates. As a chief apologist for Italian fascism—his convenient narrative claiming that ‘good’ Italian fascists were merely misled by Hitler and the German Nazis—Berlusconi discredits himself from the get-go.

This is a cheap provocation, a misrepresentation of history, and a vulgar spewing of bile by perhaps the most pompuous political clown of Europe.

What repulses me especially is that Berlusconi is not above exploiting this most serious issue for cheap political points. I think the political culture of Italy and Europe would improve if he did us all a favor and moved on into retirement.

 

A New Book About Jewish Identity In Contemporary Germany

A new book about Jewish identity in contemporary Germany

I just came across an interesting article in the Atlantic about Jewish identity in contemporary Germany and how today’s young generations in Germany relate to the Holocaust. In his new book, author Yasha Mounk’s puts forth the theory “that people understand themselves and others through their genetic ties to history’s victims and oppressors.”

Read more:

Are Today’s Germans Morally Responsible for the Holocaust?” (Emma Green, The Atlantic, 2014/01/22)

Idiotische Selfies: Holocaust-Gedenkstätten-Sonderausgabe

Idiotische Selfies: Holocaust-Gedenkstätten-Sonderausgabe

Allgegenwärtige, triviale Social-Media-Fotografie

Es ist ja bereits viel darüber geschrieben worden, wie die Techniken der Social-Media-Fotografie mithilfe des Smartphones optischen Müll produzieren können, Triviales emporheben und mit Banalitäten Aufmerksamkeit erhaschen wollen.

Die perfekte Verkörperung dieser Erscheinung ist der Selfie, das mit dem eigenen Smartphone aufgenommene Selbstportrait für die Darstellung in sozialen Netzwerken.

Jung und naiv, bewaffnet mit Technologie

Um eines vorweg zu stellen: Wir waren alle mal jung und dumm, ich ganz explizit eingeschlossen. Nur gab es, als ich vierzehn Jahre alt war, noch keine Smartphones mit guten Kameras. Das Selfie war noch Lichtjahre entfernt. Vielleicht ist das mein Glück, wer weiß. Heute wird alles fotografiert und landet, angereichert mit hippen Retro-Filtern und garniert mit Hashtags, auf Facebook, Instagram und Konsorten.

Soweit, so normal. Ich bin weder gegen Technologie noch gegen jugendlichen Leichtsinn. Den Mantel des spießigen Mecker-Opas will ich mit beileibe noch nicht umhängen. Aber: Nicht alles ist lustig. Nicht alles eignet sich als gedankenlose Kulisse für die spaßige,  egoistische Selbstinszenierung. Zum Beispiel Holocaust-Gedenkstätten.

Ignoranz, Respektlosigkeit, und grenzenlose Selbstbezogenheit

Das VICE Deutschland hat gerade einen Artikel mit Fotostrecke veröffentlicht, der Instagram-Fotos mit jugendlichen Besucher*innen des Holocaust-Mahnmals in Berlin und in verschiedenen Konzentrationslagern zeigt. Auf den meisten Bildern sind sorglos lachende Jugendliche zu sehen, die sich teilweise für die Bilder in Pose werfen. Die Bilder sind oft mit Vintage-Filtern bearbeitet und mit allerlei Hashtags versehen.

#YOLOcaust und #Instacaust – Idiotische und taktlose Hashtags

Eine kleine Auswahl von Hashtag-Kombinationen auf den Bildern aus dem VICE-Artikel:

  • #Auschwitz #chillywilly [Erklärung laut urbandictionary.com: “Chilly Willy: To injest alcohol through the nose via snorting, in order to get the alochol into your system quicker. Often done out of the concave bottom of a shot glass. That chilly willy was fun huh? wait…get up, why are you passed out?“] – Saufen in Auschwitz.
  • #Buchenwald #KZ #Hipster #abgehen – Typ macht ein Kissyface vor dem Spiegel.
  • #Treblinka #Arbeitmachtfrei #Treblinka #ZyklonB #feelgood – Welche Gründe kann es geben, um sich bei dem Thema gut zu fühlen?
  • #Dachau #mensfashion #fresh #dope – Genau, beim Besuch eines Konzentrationslagers geht es darum, wie schick Du in deinen Klamotten aussiehst.
  • #Holocaustmemorial #Berlin #fun #goodtimes – Für dich vielleicht, aber nicht für 6 Millionen ermordete Juden und Jüdinnen.
  • #Holocaustmemorial #Berlin #chelseaboots – Genau, es geht um deine heißen Stiefel.
  • #Treblinka #Swag – Alles dreht sich um dein tolles Outfit.
  • #instacaust – Ohne Worte.
  • #Holocaustmemorial #Interrailing – Züge und Konzentrationslager: War da nicht etwas?
  • #Dachau #crazy #Germans – Eine leichte Untertreibung, könnte man denken.
  • #Berlin #Yolocaust – Ohne Worte.
  • #Dachau #perfect #country – Ohne Worte.
  • #Berlin #Holocaustmahnmahl #bisschentouripipapo – Ohne Worte.
  • #Sachsenhausen #hungry and #cold – Mädels im Urlaub können sich später noch in einem schicken Café aufwärmen und etwas essen—KZ-Häftlinge konnten das nicht.
  • #Buchenwald #KZ #girls #bestes #wetter – Schönes Wetter, gut für euch! Kommentare unter dem Foto: “wenn das die juden wüssten :p“ – „die gibts nicht mehr :p”
  • #Holocaustmahnmal #hot #boy #nice – Wie schön, dass du dich locker in Szene setzen kannst—sechs Millionen Juden können das nicht.
  • #terezin [Theresienstadt] #fascism #follow4follow – Ohne Worte.

Was tun gegen den #YOLOcaust?

Wer ist schuld? Ich gebe den Jugendlichen für Ihre Ahnungslosigkeit nur eine Teilschuld. Zwar wachsen sie heute in einer Welt auf, die ihnen wie keiner Generation zuvor eine derartige Masse an Informationen bietet. Andererseits habe ich mich selbst mit vierzehn Jahren ehrlich gesagt kein Stück für Geschichte interessiert. Das kam alles etwas später. Aber liebe Eltern, Lehrer*innen, Reiseveranstalter*innen—Bitte klärt sie besser auf.

Ich brauche wohl nicht noch einmal betonen, wie furchtbar ich diese erschreckend naiven und geschmacklosen Instagram-Postings finde. Wenn man sich wenigstens ein bisschen mit der NS-Geschichte beschäftigen würde, käme man vielleicht von selbst auf die Idee, so etwas zu unterlassen.

Ich denke, dieser Umgang mit dem Holocaust macht deutlich, dass weiterhin eine Notwendigkeit besteht, über die NS-Geschichte aufzuklären und historisches Wissen weiterzugeben.

Die Jugendlichen auf den Fotos sind mit Sicherheit nicht alle nur aus Deutschland. Insofern gilt der Appell, bessere Geschichtsbildung zu fördern, über die Grenzen der BRD hinaus.

Aber wir hier in Deutschland sollten dennoch alles tun, damit solche Gedankenlosigkeit im Umgang mit der Vernichtung der europäischen Juden und Jüdinnen durch die Deutschen im Dritten Reich sich nicht weiter ausbreitet.

Mehr lesen:

Hashtags, die du für dein Holocaust-Gedenkstätten-Selfie nicht verwenden solltest.” (Hektor Brehl, VICE Deutschland, 20.11.2013)

Historian Ulrich Adelt on the Blues in Cold War Germany

On April 26, Dr. Ulrich Adelt, Junior Professor of American Studies from the University of Wyoming, gave a talk at American Studies Leipzig as part of the Fulbright lecture series. His presentation was titled “Just Play the Blues: African Americans, Afro-Germans, white Germans and the Politics of Primitivism.”

Professor Adelt’s research interests include pop music, transnationalism, and racial politics.

In the 1960s, blues music underwent a shift from black artists and audiences to white artists and audiences. With the appropriation of the blues by white artists and audiences, the genre shifted away from its former black working class base. The white middle-class embrace of certain notions of blackness stood in contrast to black audiences’ increasing attraction to new music genres emphasizing civil rights and black power, such as Soul and Funk. For white audiences, black masculinity was perceived as a marker of authenticity. Nevertheless, African American performers often resisted such forced constructions of blackness.

Adelt used the American Folk Blues Festival, a music festival organized by German promoters starting in the early 1960s to illustrate the complex relationships between transnational popular culture and race during the Cold War.

The Transatlantic Dimension of the Blues

In the 1960s, blues music became a transatlantic phenomenon in its own way. Black American blues musicians, some of whom became expatriates, brought their music to eager European audiences. After a while, blues in an updated form was re-imported to the US, mostly through British rock bands.

As an example of an expatriate blues musician, Adelt mentioned Memphis Slim (1915 – 1988), who was portrayed in the June 1966 issue of Ebony magazine while living in Paris (You can read the issue in the Ebony archives). But this was not the norm. Most African American blues performers did not become expatriates.

Memphis Slim, American Folk Blues Festival, Hamburg 1972. Picture by Heinrich Klaffs. This file is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 1.0 Generic license. From Wikipedia.
Memphis Slim, American Folk Blues Festival, Hamburg 1972. Picture by Heinrich Klaffs. This file is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 1.0 Generic license. From Wikipedia.

 

 

Germany Gets the Blues (Sort of)

In Germany, promoters Horst Lippmann and Fritz Rau organized the American Folk Blues Festival, beginning in 1962. Their construction of the blues was highly romantic. It used the genre’s blackness to highlight blues as the primitive root of Rock’n’Roll. Lippmann and Rau saw the blues as a vehicle of Denazificiation and Anti-racism. In retrospect, however, they continued to deploy racial constructions that are uncomfortably close to that of the Third Reich.

Adelt argued that pop culture is not always a liberating force, but can also work to uphold racial hierarchies and oppression.

Primitivism in Germany

In Germany, positive racism in the form of appropriating the art of ‘savages’ has a long history. African bodies used in art were seen as modern, fresh, or lively. Examples of works of art in this vein include Pablo Picasso’s Les Demoiselles d’Avignon (1907), Emil Nolde‘s Dance Around the Golden Calf (1910), or the enthusiasm for American-born French dancer/singer/actress Josephine Baker (1906 – 1975).

Josephine Baker in Banana Skirt from the Folies Bergère production "Un Vent de Folie," 1927. Picture by Walery, French, (1863-1935). PD by age (Walery died more than 70 years ago). From Wikipedia.
Josephine Baker in Banana Skirt from the Folies Bergère production “Un Vent de Folie,” 1927. Picture by Walery, French, (1863-1935). PD by age (Walery died more than 70 years ago). From Wikipedia.

 

 

During the Third Reich, this former positive racism was replaced by negative racism, exemplified by terms such as Entartete Musik (‘Degenerate music’) (see also here) for jazz, and a fear of Vernegerung (‘Negroidization’) or Verjudung (‘Jewification’) of German culture through ‘foreign’ popular culture.

 

 

 

 

 

After World War II, certain Nazi imagery survived in popular children’s television series such as Jim Button and Luke the Engine Driver (Jim Knopf und Lukas der Lokomotivführer) (1960). [There is a debate in Germany about whether Jim Button has to be read as racist or anti-racist.]

Racism was also present among parts of the white German left. Here, a “fascination with the real” drove the interest in the black embodiment of suffering.

Race in Germany Before and After World War Two

Transplanting the blues to Germany brought with it certain traveling problematic racial conceptions. While the US certainly had its own historic issues with race, the blues was entering a German culture that was no stranger to racist ideas, even before National Socialism. Among these were the ‘Black Horror on the Rhine’ (“Die Schwarze Schmach“)—fear of the presence of black French troops during the Occupation of the Rhineland following World War I, the vilification of interracial fraternization in the phenomenon of  ‘Occupation Babies’ (“Besatzungskinder”) after World War II, caused by sexual relationships between black American GIs and white German women.

Such negative racial constructs were later challenged by Afro-German activists, for instance in the book Farbe Bekennen (‘Showing our Colors’) in 1986.

After the reunification of Germany, a wave of Neo-Nazi attacks on immigrants and non-white persons conveyed an urgency among ethnic minorities and sympathetic parts of the mainstream German population to organize against racial stereotypes. Within German popular culture, Hip Hop artists, especially multi-ethnic or Afro-German Hip Hop artists, such as Advanced Chemistry (early 1990s), Samy Deluxe (starting in the late 1990s), or Brothers Keepers (early 2000s) were involved in anti-racist activism.

Blues as Cold War Propaganda in East and West

The blues was used as a propaganda tool on both sides of the Cold War divide. The capitalist West promoted blues and Jazz as symbols of openness in  contrast to the Soviet system. Nonetheless, during the early Cold War, the Jim Crow system was still very much intact in the US, and the Civil Rights Movement had not yet gained that strong a foothold.

The communist East was eager to point out these contradictions, presenting blues and jazz as a signs of resistance against the inherent racism of the capitalist system. In the German Democratic Republic, blues was promoted as music of the oppressed masses, embedded into a critique of US capitalism. On the other hand, there were crackdowns on long-haired blues fans nonetheless, and racial stereotypes were not absent.

Lippmann and Rau Bring American Popular Music to Germany

The organizers of the American Folk Blues Festival were coming from very different backgrounds. Lippmann was Jewish and his family had been persecuted by the Nazis. He saw similarities between black suffering in the US and the plight of Jews in Nazi Germany. Rau, on the other hand, came from a family that had profited from the Nazis’ war buildup. He discovered Jazz in the 1950s and imagined the possibility of Dennazification and “rebirth through Jazz.”

When Lippmann and Rau began to organize jazz concerts featuring African American artists, for instance the Modern Jazz Quartet, they sought to give Jazz an aura of “respectability” by having artists wear tuxedos, advertising events with abstract art, and setting up concerts in symphony halls instead of small, smoke-filled clubs. As Adelt argued, this idea of having to make jazz and its performers respectable can be traced back to racial ideas of the Nazi era.

While organizing blues concerts, Lippmann and Rau gave up on the concept of creating respectability and appealed to primitivist ideas instead. The American Folk Blues Festival, staged between 1962 and 1972, and 1980 to 1985, usually went for three to four hours and featured eight to ten headliners.

What was presented in these concerts can be described as nostalgic blues for white audiences. Both folk music from the 1930s and 1950s blues were at this point somewhat outdated. Older blues artists, such as Willie Dixon (1915 – 1992), were rediscovered during the 1960s. In this context, there was also a conflict between older black and younger white blues performers.

Big Joe Williams, American Folk Blues Festival, Hamburg 1972. Photo by Heinrich Klaffs. This file is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 1.0 Generic license. From Wikipedia.
Big Joe Williams, American Folk Blues Festival, Hamburg 1972. Photo by Heinrich Klaffs. This file is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 1.0 Generic license. From Wikipedia.

Lippmann and Rau’s posters advertising their events made extensive use of romantic primitivist imagery. The artwork often featured guitars and earthy colors, reminiscent of nameless black bodies. Overall, their design conveyed a “non-threatening” nostalgia.

The events themselves even surpassed the posters in their stagecraft. To enhance the atmosphere of the spectacle, concerts sometimes featured recreated juke joints and other scenery, and African American GIs were bused in as studio audience in Germany.

Here, here, and here are some videos of typical performances (you can find much more material on youtube).

In 1967, Lippmann and Rau started booking Soul and Funk artists such as James Brown. With a turn towards these more contemporary forms of black popular music, the audience also shifted notably from white Germans to black American GIs.

Blues, Civil Rights, and Well-Meaning Racism

In 1965, Lippmann and Rau linked their American Folk Blues Festival to the US Civil Rights Movement. While well-meaning, in retrospect they upheld problematic racial constructions. In concert booklets, for example, blacks were presented as victims without an agency of their own. In a sense, Lippmann and Rau catered to their audience’s expectations of blues as a primitive, raw, emotional, but certainly not intellectual form of art.

Some African American blues artists developed what Adelt sees as strategies to counter such forced constructions of identity. At times, they spontaneously changed playlists at their shows. Some defied stereotyping by showing off their extraordinary skills and gimmicks in musicianship, for instance on the guitar. Stage antics, appearance in decidedly flashy clothes, or the performance of novelty songs were forms of resistance against expectations. White audiences did not always take this too well. In 1965, Buddy Guy (born in 1936) was booed for playing a medley of James Brown songs. To some degree, the blues resisted against expectations of white middle class respectability.

In conclusion, Adelt remarked that the appropriation of the blues by white German audiences was characterized by ambiguity. While there was great optimism about the prospects of Denazification through American popular culture, the project of transplanting the blues to Europe had a blind spot in its continuation of racial stereotypes.

Here is American Studies Leipzig’s video interview with Ulrich Adelt:

Further Reading:

Adelt, Ulrich. Blues Music in the Sixties: A Story in Black and White. First Paperback ed. Rutgers UP, 2011.
Balitzki, Jürgen et al. Bye Bye, Lübben City. Bluesfreaks, Tramps Und Hippies in Der DDR. 1st ed. Schwarzkopf + Schwarzkopf, 2004.
Carby, Hazel V. Race Men. Harvard UP, 2000.
Filene, Benjamin. Romancing the Folk: Public Memory and American Roots Music. U of North Carolina P, 2000.
Hamilton, Marybeth. In Search of the Blues. Reprint. Basic Books, 2009.
Hohn, Maria. GIs and Fräuleins: The German-American Encounter in 1950s West Germany. U of North Carolina P, 2002.
Oguntoye, Katharina, May Ayim, and Dagmar Schultz. Farbe Bekennen: Afro-deutsche Frauen Auf Den Spuren Ihrer Geschichte. 3., veränd. Aufl. (REV). Orlanda Frauenverlag, 2007.
Von Eschen, Penny M. Satchmo Blows Up the World: Jazz Ambassadors Play the Cold War. Harvard UP, 2006.